Altered plasma membrane dynamics of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type Ia in a low bone mass mouse model.

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Animals, Bone Density, Bone Marrow Cells, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2, Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I, Bone and Bones, Calcification, Physiologic, Caveolae, Caveolins, Cell Membrane, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Congenic, Mice, Inbred C3H, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Osteoporosis, Protein Isoforms, Signal Transduction, Smad Proteins, Stromal Cells

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Bone 2012 Jan; 50(1):189-99.




Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that initiate differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to osteoblasts and adipocytes, yet the mechanism that decides which lineage the cell will follow is unknown. BMP2 is linked to the development of osteoporosis and variants of BMP2 gene have been reported to increase the development of osteoporosis. Intracellular signaling is transduced by BMP receptors (BMPRs) of type I and type II that are serine/threonine kinase receptors. The BMP type I a receptor (BMPRIa) is linked to osteogenesis and bone mineral density (BMD). BMPRs are localized to caveolae enriched with Caveolin1 alpha/beta and Caveolin beta isoforms to facilitate signaling. BMP2 binding to caveolae was recently found to be crucial for the initiation of the Smad signaling pathway. Here we determined the role of BMP receptor localization within caveolae isoforms and aggregation of caveolae as well as BMPRIa in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on bone mineral density using the B6.C3H-6T as a model system. The B6.C3H-6T is a congenic mouse with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) with increased marrow adipocytes and decreased osteoprogenitor proliferation. C57BL/6J mice served as controls since only a segment of Chr6 from the C3H/HeJ mouse was backcrossed to a C57BL/6J background. Family of image correlation spectroscopy was used to analyze receptor cluster density and co-localization of BMPRIa and caveolae. It was previously shown that BMP2 stimulation results in an aggregation of caveolae and BMPRIa. Additionally, BMSCs isolated from the B6.C3H-6T mice showed a dispersion of caveolae domains compared to C57BL/6J. The aggregation of BMPRIa that is necessary for signaling to occur was inhibited in BMSCs isolated from B6.C3H-6T. Additionally, we analyzed the co-localization of BMPRIa with caveolin-1 isoforms. There was increased percentage of BMPRIa co-localization with caveolae compared to C57BL/6J. BMP2 stimulation had no effect on the colocalization of BMPRIa with caveolin-1. Disrupting caveolae initiated Smad signaling in the isolated BMSCs from B6.C3H-6T. These data suggest that in congenic 6T mice BMP receptors aggregation is inhibited causing an inhibition of signaling and reduced bone mass.