Title

Transcriptional Regulation of the Pancreatic Islet: Implications for Islet Function.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

9-2015

JAX Location

Reprint Collection

JAX Source

Curr Diab Rep 2015 Sep; 15(9):66.

PMID

26272056

Grant

DK092251

Abstract

Islets of Langerhans contain multiple hormone-producing endocrine cells controlling glucose homeostasis. Transcription establishes and maintains islet cellular fates and identities. Genetic and environmental disruption of islet transcription triggers cellular dysfunction and disease. Early transcriptional regulation studies of specific islet genes, including insulin (INS) and the transcription factor PDX1, identified the first cis-regulatory DNA sequences and trans-acting factors governing islet function. Here, we review how human islet "omics" studies are reshaping our understanding of transcriptional regulation in islet (dys)function and diabetes. First, we highlight the expansion of islet transcript number, form, and function and of DNA transcriptional regulatory elements controlling their production. Next, we cover islet transcriptional effects of genetic and environmental perturbation. Finally, we discuss how these studies' emerging insights should empower our diabetes research community to build mechanistic understanding of diabetes pathophysiology and to equip clinicians with tailored, precision medicine options to prevent and treat islet dysfunction and diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 2015 Sep; 15(9):66.

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