Beyond the brain: disrupted in schizophrenia 1 regulates pancreatic β-cell function via glycogen synthase kinase-3β.
FASEB J 2016 Feb; 30(2):983-93.
Individuals with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives have higher rates of type 2 diabetes (T2D) than the general population (18-30 vs. 1.2-6.3%), independent of body mass index and antipsychotic medication, suggesting shared genetic components may contribute to both diseases. The cause of this association remains unknown. Mutations in disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders [logarithm (base 10) of odds = 7.1]. Here, we identified DISC1 as a major player controlling pancreatic β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion via regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). DISC1 expression was enriched in developing mouse and human pancreas and adult β- and ductal cells. Loss of DISC1 function, through siRNA-mediated depletion or expression of a dominant-negative truncation that models the chromosomal translocation of human DISC1 in schizophrenia, resulted in decreased β-cell proliferation (3 vs. 1%; P < 0.01), increased apoptosis (0.1 vs. 0.6%; P < 0.01), and glucose intolerance in transgenic mice. Insulin secretion was reduced (0.5 vs. 0.1 ng/ml; P < 0.05), and critical β-cell transcription factors Pdx1 and Nkx6.1 were significantly decreased. Impaired DISC1 allowed inappropriate activation of GSK3β in β cells, and antagonizing GSK3β (SB216763; IC50 = 34.3 nM) rescued the β-cell defects. These results uncover an unexpected role for DISC1 in normal β-cell physiology and suggest that DISC1 dysregulation contributes to T2D independently of its importance for cognition.-Jurczyk, A., Nowosielska, A., Przewozniak, N., Aryee, K.-E., DiIorio, P., Blodgett, D., Yang, C., Campbell-Thompson, M., Atkinson, M., Shultz, L., Rittenhouse, A., Harlan, D., Greiner, D., Bortell, R. Beyond the brain: disrupted in schizophrenia 1 regulates pancreatic β-cell function via glycogen synthase kinase-3β. FASEB J 2016 Feb; 30(2):983-93.
Jurczyk, Agata; Nowosielska, Anetta; Przewozniak, Natalia; Aryee, Ken-Edwin; DiIorio, Philip; Blodgett, David; Yang, Chaoxing; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Atkinson, Mark; Shultz, Leonard D.; Rittenhouse, Ann; Harlan, David; Greiner, Dale; and Bortell, Rita, "Beyond the brain: disrupted in schizophrenia 1 regulates pancreatic β-cell function via glycogen synthase kinase-3β." (2016). Faculty Research 2016. 44.