GlyCAM1 negatively regulates monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and contributes to radiation-based protection in glaucoma.
J Neuroinflammation 2017 Apr 26; 14(1):93.
EY011721, Barbara and Joseph Cohen Foundation
BACKGROUND: We previously reported a profound long-term neuroprotection subsequent to a single radiation-therapy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. This neuroprotection prevents entry of monocyte-like immune cells into the optic nerve head during glaucoma. Gene expression studies in radiation-treated mice implicated Glycam1 in this protection. Glycam1 encodes a proteoglycan ligand for L-selectin and is an excellent candidate to modulate immune cell entry into the eye. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that radiation-induced over-expression of Glycam1 is a key component of the neuroprotection.
METHODS: We generated a null allele of Glycam1 on a DBA/2J background. Gene and protein expression of Glycam1, monocyte entry into the optic nerve head, retinal ganglion cell death, and axon loss in the optic nerve were assessed.
RESULTS: Radiation therapy potently inhibits monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and prevents retinal ganglion cell death and axon loss. DBA/2J mice carrying a null allele of Glycam1 show increased monocyte entry and increased retinal ganglion cell death and axon loss following radiation therapy, but the majority of optic nerves were still protected by radiation therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Although GlyCAM1 is an L-selectin ligand, its roles in immunity are not yet fully defined. The current study demonstrates a partial role for GlyCAM1 in radiation-mediated protection. Furthermore, our results clearly show that GlyCAM1 levels modulate immune cell entry from the vasculature into neural tissues. As Glycam1 deficiency has a more profound effect on cell entry than on neurodegeneration, further experiments are needed to precisely define the role of monocyte entry in DBA/2J glaucoma. Nevertheless, GlyCAM1's function as a negative regulator of extravasation may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for an array of common conditions involving inflammation. J Neuroinflammation 2017 Apr 26; 14(1):93.
Williams, Pete A.; Braine, Catherine E; Foxworth, Nicole E; Cochran, Kelly E; and John, Simon W M, "GlyCAM1 negatively regulates monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and contributes to radiation-based protection in glaucoma." (2017). Faculty Research 2017. 98.