Hypoxanthine and adenosine in murine ovarian follicular fluid: concentrations and activity in maintaining oocyte meiotic arrest.
Animal, Extracellular-Space: me, Female, Gonadotropins-Chorionic, Gonadotropins-Equine, Graafian-Follicle: me, Hypoxanthines: me, Meiosis, Mice, SUPPORT-NON-U-S-GOVT, SUPPORT-U-S-GOVT-P-H-S, Time-Factors
Biol-Reprod. 1985 Dec; 33(5):1041-9.
The concentrations of hypoxanthine and adenosine in ovarian follicular fluid were estimated, using high-performance liquid chromatography, for three groups of mice: 1) pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-primed mice; 2) PMSG-primed mice 2 h after injection with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); and 3) PMSG-primed mice 5 h after injection with hCG. The concentration of hypoxanthine in follicular fluid of Group 1 mice was 2-4 mM and of adenosine was 0.35-0.70 mM. There was no difference in the concentrations of these purines in the follicular fluid of Group 2 mice, in which maturation had been induced with hCG but the samples were taken just before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Therefore, a decrease in the concentrations of these purines does not appear to induce GVBD. A significant decrease in the concentrations of hypoxanthine and adenosine was observed in the follicular fluid of Group 3 mice in which GVBD had already occurred. This decrease was probably a result of an increase in follicular fluid volume. Adenosine had a significant, but transient, effect in maintaining both cumulus cell-enclosed and denuded oocytes in meiotic arrest; all oocytes had undergone GVBD by 100 min incubation in 1 mM adenosine. When GVBD was assessed after 3 h culture, concentrations up to 5 mM adenosine failed to maintain meiotic arrest. In contrast, hypoxanthine (2-5 mM) had a dose-dependent effect in maintaining both cumulus cell-enclosed and denuded oocytes in meiotic arrest that was sustained up to 24 h. Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes were always more sensitive to hypoxanthine than were denuded oocytes. There was a strong synergistic effect of adenosine and hypoxanthine in maintaining meiotic arrest; 4 mM hypoxanthine and 0.75 mM adenosine maintained more than 95% of the oocytes in meiotic arrest for culture periods up to 24 h. This action was completely reversible by withdrawal of the purines. It is hypothesized that the synergistic effect of these purines may result both by promoting cyclic adenosine monophosphate synthesis (adenosine), and by preventing its hydrolysis (hypoxanthine).
Eppig, J J.; Ward, Bailey P.; and Coleman, D L., " Hypoxanthine and adenosine in murine ovarian follicular fluid: concentrations and activity in maintaining oocyte meiotic arrest." (1985). Faculty Research 1980 - 1989. 676.