Faculty Research 1990 - 1999

CSF-1 regulation of Il6 gene expression by murine macrophages: a pivotal role for GM-CSF.

Document Type


Publication Date


First Page


Last Page


JAX Source

J Leukoc Biol 1998 Dec;64(6):810-6


CA27523/CA/NCI, CA20408/CA/NCI, CA74886/CA/NCI


We test the hypothesis that the monocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1 or M-CSF) plays a major role in the inflammatory responses of Mphi by acting as a priming agent that heightens their responsiveness to secondary stimulation by other mediators. We previously reported that CSF-1 induced peritoneal Mphi (PMphi) to transcribe several genes including interleukin-6 (Il6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Csfgm). It was reported that the Il6 and Csfgm genes were individually regulated by different pathways but it was not clear to what extent the two genes interacted during Mphi-mediated inflammatory responses. We now show that CSF-1 induces the release of bioactive GM-CSF from mouse resident PMphi. GM-CSF induces Il6 gene expression and synergizes with CSF-1 to induce the release of large amounts of IL-6. PMphi from C57BL/6J-Csfgm(null) mice were shown to release minimal IL-6 in response to CSF-1 and to express a much reduced response to the highly stimulatory combination of CSF-1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous recombinant GM-CSF restored the IL-6 response of GM-CSF null PMphi to a great extent but not completely. As controls, three other recombinant proteins were tested but of these only tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was shown to synergize with both CSF-1 and GM-CSF. Using PMphi from mice deficient in the expression of the Il6 gene, it was shown that they released two- to threefold more GM-CSF in response to CSF-1 than their control counterparts. However, an exogenous supply of recombinant IL-6 had no effect on GM-CSF release. The data indicate that the pathways regulating Il6 gene expression are under the control of a complex network of cytokine interactions involving at least CSF-1, GM-CSF, and TNF-alpha, with the added possibility that IL-6 may exert modulatory activity within this network.

Please contact the Joan Staats Library for information regarding this document.