Proteasome Inhibition Alters Glucose-stimulated (Pro)insulin Secretion and Turnover in Pancreatic {beta}-Cells.

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J Biol Chem 2005 Apr; 280(16):15727-34.


Metabolic labeling studies were conducted in freshly isolated mouse islets and a beta-cell line (MIN6) to examine the effects of proteasome inhibition on glucose-stimulated (pro)insulin synthesis and secretion. Glucose-stimulated (pro)insulin synthesis, as determined by the incorporation of [(3)H]tyrosine, decreased significantly by 90% in islets and 71% in MIN6 cells pretreated with the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin (10 mum) for 2 h. To follow the fate of newly synthesized (pro)insulin, islets were pulse-labeled with [(3)H]tyrosine (40 muCi) for 20 min and chased +/- lactacystin (10 mum) for up to 4 h. The release of newly synthesized (pro)insulin ([(3)H]tyrosine-labeled) was similar between lactacystin-treated and control islets despite a 51% decrease (p <0.05) in total immunoreactive (pro)insulin secretion by lactacystin-treated islets. The specific radioactivity of [(3)H]tyrosine-labeled (pro)insulin in the extracellular medium of lactacystin-treated islets (0.52 +/- 0.16 cpm/microunits) was 2-fold greater relative to control islets (0.25 +/- 0.06 cpm/microunits). Induction of the unfolded protein response by lactacystin, as evidenced by the up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones (GRP78/BiP, GRP94, protein disulfide isomerase) and induction of the stress-inducible transcription factor C/EBP-homologous protein/GADD153 (CHOP/GADD153), likely contributed to the release of newly synthesized (pro)insulin to relieve ER stress. The present data indicate proteasome inhibition did not prevent, but increased (p <0.05), the intracellular degradation of [(3)H]tyrosine-labeled (pro-)insulin from 8 to 24% in islets. Collectively, these data indicate beta-cells may balance glucose-stimulated (pro)insulin synthesis and secretion with the activity of the proteasome to regulate protein concentrations in the ER.