"Agouti NOD": identification of a CBA-derived Idd locus on Chromosome 7 and its use for chimera production with NOD embryonic stem cells.

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Cell-Line, Chimera, Chromosome-Mapping, Chromosomes-Mammalian, Diabetes-Mellitus-Experimental, Embryo, Female, Insulin, Male, Mice-Inbred-NOD, Penetrance, Research-Support-N, I, H, -Extramural, Research-Support-Non-U, S, -Gov't, Research-Support-U, S, -Gov't-P, H, S, Stem-Cells

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Mamm Genome 2005 Oct; 16(10):775-83.


Penetrance of the complex of genes predisposing the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse to autoimmune diabetes is affected by the maternal environment. NOD.CBALs-Tyr(+)/Lt is an agouti-pigmented Chromosome 7 congenic stock of NOD/Lt mice produced as a resource for embryo transfer experiments to provide the necessary maternal factors and allow the easy identification of NOD (albino) embryo donor phenotype. CBcNO6/Lt, a recombinant congenic agouti stock already containing approximately 50% NOD genome, was used as the donor source of a wild-type CBA tyrosinase allele. When the incidence of diabetes was assessed after nine generations of backcrossing and one generation of sib-sib mating, significant reduction in diabetes development was observed. No difference in diabetes development was observed in Tyr/Tyr(c) heterozygotes, showing that protection was recessive. Analysis of diabetes progression in another NOD stock congenic for C57BL/6 alleles on Chromosome 7 linked to the glucose phosphate isomerase (Gpi1(b)) locus provided no protection, indicating that the diabetes resistance (Idd) gene was distal to 34 cM (D7Mit346). Approximately 5 cM of the distal congenic region overlaps a region from C57L previously associated with protection when homozygous. The delayed onset and reduced frequency of diabetes in the NOD.CBALs-Tyr(+)/Lt stock is an advantage when females of this stock are used as surrogate mothers in studies involving hysterectomy or embryo transfers. Indeed, a newly developed NOD embryonic stem (ES) cell line injected into NOD.CBALs- Tyr(+)/Lt blastocysts produced approximately 50% live-born mice, of which approximately 11% were chimeric. Presumably because of high genomic instability, no germline transmission was observed.