Metalloprotease-mediated shedding of enzymatically active mouse ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.2 upon T cell activation [In Process Citation]

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J Immunol 2000 Oct; 165(8):4463-9.


T cells proteolytically shed the ectodomains of several cell surface proteins and, thereby, can alter their responsiveness and can release soluble intercellular regulators. ART2.2 is a GPI-anchored ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) related to ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. ART2.2 is expressed exclusively by mature T cells. Here we show that ART2.2 is shed from the cell surface in enzymatically active form upon activation of T cells. Shedding of ART2.2 resembles that of L-selectin (CD62L) in dose response, kinetics of release, and sensitivity to the metalloprotease inhibitor Immunex Compound 3, suggesting that ART2.2, like CD62L, is cleaved by TNF-alpha-converting enzyme or by another metalloprotease. ART2.2 shed from activated T cells migrates slightly faster in SDS-PAGE analyses than does ART2.2 released upon cleavage of the GPI anchor. This indicates that shedding of ART2.2 is mediated by proteolytic cleavage close to its membrane anchor. Shed ART2.2 is enzymatically active and ADP-ribosylates several substrates in vitro. Thus, shedding of ART2.2 releases a potential intercellular regulator. Finally, using a new FACS assay for monitoring ADP-ribosylation of cell surface proteins, we demonstrate that shedding of ART2.2 correlates with a reduced sensitivity of T cell surface proteins to ADP-ribosylation. Our findings suggest that by shedding ART2.2 the activated T cell not only releases a potential intercellular regulator but also may alter its responsiveness to immune regulation by ART2.2-mediated ADP-ribosylation of cell surface proteins.

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