K-ras activation generates an inflammatory response in lung tumors.
Oncogene 2006 Mar; 25(14):2105-12.
Activating mutations in K-ras are one of the most common genetic alterations in human lung cancer. To dissect the role of K-ras activation in bronchial epithelial cells during lung tumorigenesis, we created a model of lung adenocarcinoma by generating a conditional mutant mouse with both Clara cell secretory protein (CC10)-Cre recombinase and the Lox-Stop-Lox K-ras(G12D) alleles. The activation of K-ras mutant allele in CC10 positive cells resulted in a progressive phenotype characterized by cellular atypia, adenoma and ultimately adenocarcinoma. Surprisingly, K-ras activation in the bronchiolar epithelium is associated with a robust inflammatory response characterized by an abundant infiltration of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. These mice displayed early mortality in the setting of this pulmonary inflammatory response with a median survival of 8 weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from these mutant mice contained the MIP-2, KC, MCP-1 and LIX chemokines that increased significantly with age. Cell lines derived from these tumors directly produced MIP-2, LIX and KC. This model demonstrates that K-ras activation in the lung induces the elaboration of inflammatory chemokines and provides an excellent means to further study the complex interactions between inflammatory cells, chemokines and tumor progression.
Ji, H; Houghton, A M.; Mariani, T J.; Perera, S; Kim, C B.; Padera, R; Tonon, G; McNamara, K; Marconcini, L A.; Hezel, A; El, Bardeesy N.; Bronson, R T.; Sugarbaker, D; Maser, R S.; Shapiro, S D.; and Wong, K K., "K-ras activation generates an inflammatory response in lung tumors." (2006). Faculty Research 2000 - 2009. 1314.