Abnormal lymphoid organ development in immunodeficient mutant mice.

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Humans, Immunologic-Deficiency-Syndromes, Lymphoid-Tissue, Mice, Mice-Mutant-Strains, Research-Support-N, I, H, -Extramural

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Vet Pathol 2006 Jul; 43(4):401-23.


Development of the primary and secondary lymphoid organs is a tightly controlled process. These tissues are highly organized to maximize efficiency of the immune response. Spontaneous and targeted mutations in laboratory mice have led to better understanding of the molecular interactions and signaling pathways essential to the development and organization of lymphoid tissues, and the functional consequences of loss or disruption of the normal structures. On the basis of studies of mutations in mice and other species, it has been determined that a wild-type allele of the Foxn1 gene is required for normal thymic development and function. The Tlx1, Bapx1, Tcf21, Wt1 and Dh genes are essential for development of the spleen, while mutations of Nkx2-3, Lta, Ltb, Ltbr, Map3k14, Relb, Tnf, Tnfrsf1a, Cxcl13, Blr1 (Cxcr5), or cpdm genes result in disruption of normal splenic microarchitecture. The requirements for organized lymph nodes vary according to anatomic location, but most rely on Id2 (Idb2) and Rorc, in addition to lymphotoxins and Tnfrsf11a, Tnfsf11, Relb, Map3k14, Cxcl13, and Blr1 genes. Development of Peyer's patches is dependent on Id2 and Rorc genes, lymphotoxins, and Relb, Map3k14, Il7r, and cpdm genes. Less is known about the requirements for nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT), but Id2 is a requirement. Here we review abnormalities of lymphoid organ development in immunodeficient mutant mice, including spontaneous and targeted mutations of Id2, Rorc, Tnf, Tnfrsf1a, Lta, Ltb, Ltbr, Tnfrsf11a, Tnfsf11, Relb, Map3k14, IL7r, Blr1, and Cxcl13 genes.