"Humanized" HLA transgenic NOD mice to identify pancreatic beta cell autoantigens of potential clinical relevance to type 1 diabetes.

Document Type


Publication Date



Autoantigens, Diabetes-Mellitus-Type-1, HLA-Antigens, HLA-A2-Antigen, Humans, Insulin-Secreting-Cells, Mice-Inbred-NOD, Mice-Transgenic

JAX Location

see Reprint Collection or Book Collection W1 AN626YL v.1103 2007

JAX Source

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007; 1103:103-11.


The mechanistic basis by which the H2(g7) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provides the primary risk factor for the development of T cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice involves contributions not only from the unusual A(g7) class II molecule, but also from the more common K(d) and/or D(b) class I variants it encodes. Similarly, transgenic studies in NOD mice have confirmed the possibility first suggested in association studies that in the proper genetic context the common human HLA-A2.1 class I variant can mediate diabetogenic CD8 T cell responses. T1D continues to develop in a further refined NOD stock that expresses human HLA-A2.1, but no murine class I molecules (designated NOD.beta2m-.HHD). Islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) is an important antigenic target of diabetogenic CD8 cells in standard NOD mice. Three IGRP-derived peptides have also been identified that are presented by human HLA-A2.1 molecules to diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD.beta2m-.HHD mice. At least one of these IGRP peptides (265-273) can also be the target of autoreactive CD8 T cells in HLA-A2.1-expressing human T1D patients. Studies are currently under way to determine whether HLA-A2.1-restricted IGRP peptides can be used in a tolerance-inducing protocol that inhibits T1D development in NOD. beta2m-.HHD mice. If so, this knowledge could ultimately lead to the development of a similar T1D prevention protocol in humans.

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