NF-kappaB signaling regulates functional expression of the MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor for IgG via intronic binding sequences.

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Binding-Sites, Caco-2-Cells, Gene-Expression, Gene-Expression-Regulation, Histocompatibility-Antigens-Class-I, Humans, Immunoglobulin-G, Interleukin-1beta, Intestinal-Mucosa, Introns, Luciferases, NF-kappa-B, Promoter-Regions-(Genetics), Protein-Transport, Receptors-Fc, Receptors-IgG, Signal-Transduction, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor-alpha

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J Immunol 2007 Sep; 179(5):2999-3011.


The neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) functions to transport maternal IgG to a fetus or newborn and to protect IgG from degradation. Although FcRn is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, the extent to which FcRn expression is regulated by immunological and inflammatory events remains unknown. Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cell lines, macrophage-like THP-1, and freshly isolated human monocytes with the cytokine TNF-alpha rapidly up-regulated FcRn gene expression. In addition, the TLR ligands LPS and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhanced the level of FcRn expression in THP-1 and monocytes. Treatment of TNF-stimulated THP-1 cells with the NF-kappaB-specific inhibitor or overexpression of a dominant negative mutant inhibitory NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha; S32A/S36A) resulted in down-regulation of FcRn expression. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation we identified three NF-kappaB binding sequences within introns 2 and 4 of the human FcRn gene. An EMSA confirmed the p50/p50 and/or p65/p50 complex (s) bound to intron 2- or 4-derived oligonucleotides containing putative NF-kappaB binding sequences, respectively. The intronic NF-kappaB sequences in combination with the promoter or alone regulated the expression of a luciferase reporter gene in response to TNF-alpha stimulation or overexpression of NF-kappaB p65 and p50. DNA looping interactions potentially occurred after the stimulation between intronic NF-kappaB sequences and the FcRn promoter as shown by a chromosome conformation capture assay. Finally, TNF-alpha stimulations enhanced IgG transport across an intestinal Caco-2 epithelial monolayer. Together, these data provide the first evidence that NF-kappaB signaling via intronic sequences regulates FcRn expression and function.