Temporal migration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 neurones is modified in GAD67 knockout mice.

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Cell-Movement, Embryo-Mammalian, Glutamate-Decarboxylase, Gonadotropin-Releasing-Hormone, Mice, Mice-Knockout, Models-Biological, Neurons, Nose, Prosencephalon

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J Neuroendocrinol 2008 Jan; 20(1):93-103.


Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH-1) neurones reside in the forebrain and regulate gonadal function via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Disruption of this axis results in reproductive dysfunction. During embryonic development, GnRH-1 neurones migrate from the nasal pit through the nasal/forebrain junction (NFJ) into the developing brain. Prenatally gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is excitatory and has been shown to play a role in nervous system development. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that GABA inhibits migration of GnRH-1 neurones. The present study examines the migration of GnRH-1 neurones in GAD67 knockout (KO) mice to further elucidate the role of GABA on GnRH-1 neuronal development. Three stages were examined, embryonic day (E)12.5, E14.5 and E17.5. GnRH-1 cell number and location were analysed by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation histochemistry. The total number of GnRH-1 immunopositive cells was similar between wild-type (WT) and KO mice. However, significant differences were found in the overall distribution of GnRH-1 immunopositive cells in GAD67 KO compared to WT mice at all stages. Subsequent analysis by area revealed differences occurred at the NFJ with an increase in GnRH-1 cells in GAD67 KO at E14.5 and a decrease in GnRH-1 cells in GAD67 KO at E17.5. Comparable counts for cells expressing GnRH-1 transcript and protein were obtained. These data indicate that attenuated levels of GABA accelerate GnRH-1 cell migration in nasal areas as well as movement of GnRH-1 cells into the central nervous system at the NFJ.

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