Mouse models of diabetic nephropathy.

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Diabetic-Nephropathies, Disease-Models-Animal, Extracellular-Matrix-Proteins, Mice-Knockout, Mice-Transgenic, Nitric-Oxide-Synthase-Type-III, Phenotype, Proteoglycans, Receptor-Bradykinin-B2, Renin, Species-Specificity

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J Am Soc Nephrol 2009 Dec; 20(12):2503-12.


Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of ESRD worldwide. Despite its prevalence, a lack of reliable animal models that mimic human disease has delayed the identification of specific factors that cause or predict diabetic nephropathy. The Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium (AMDCC) was created in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health to develop and characterize models of diabetic nephropathy and other complications. This interim report and our online supplement detail the progress made toward that goal, specifically in the development and testing of murine models. Updates are provided on validation criteria for early and advanced diabetic nephropathy, phenotyping methods, the effect of background strain on nephropathy, current best models of diabetic nephropathy, negative models, and views of future directions. AMDCC investigators and other investigators in the field have yet to validate a complete murine model of human diabetic kidney disease. Nonetheless, the critical analysis of existing murine models substantially enhances our understanding of this disease process.