Changing patterns of cell surface mono (ADP-ribosyl) transferase antigen ART2.2 on resting versus cytopathically-activated T cells in NOD/Lt mice.

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Diabetologia 2001 Jul; 44(7):848-58.


CA34196/CA/NCI, DK27722/DK/NIDDK, DK36175/DK/NIDDK


AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: ART2.2 is a mouse T-cell surface ectoenzyme [mono (ADP-ribosyl) transferase] shed upon strong activation. We analysed temporal changes in ART2.2 expression in unmanipulated and cyclophosphamide-treated NOD/Lt mice compared with diabetes-resistant control strains. We used NAD, the ART2.2 substrate, to test whether ART-mediated ADP-ribosylation could retard diabetogenic activation of islet-reactive T cells in vitro. METHODS: ART2.2 and CD38, another NAD-utilizing enzyme, were measured by flow cytometry. ADP-ribosylation from ethano-NAD was followed by flow cytometry using a reagent specific for etheno-ADP ribose. RESULTS: Although mature NOD CD4 + and C D8 + T cells expressed ART2.2, this expression was delayed in young NOD mice when compared with control strains. This ontological delay at 3 weeks of age correlated with an early burst of CD25 expression unique to NOD splenic T cells. This pattern was reproduced in cyclophosphamide-accelerated diabetes in young NOD/Lt males, wherein a retarded repopulation of ART2.2 T cells in spleen and islets correlated with development of heavy insulitis and diabetes. NAD inhibited anti-CD3 induced activation of splenic T cells in vitro and also retarded killing of beta-cell targets by NOD islet-reactive CD8 effectors in vitro at concentrations equal to or greater than 1 micromol/l. Evidence suggested that CD38 on B lymphocytes competes with ART2.2 for substrate needed by B lymphocytes for ADP ribosylation. CONCLUSIONS: ART2.2 on T cells may not simply mark the resting state, but could also contribute to it via ADP-ribosylation.