Evolutionary breakpoints on human chromosome 21.

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Genomics 2001 Nov; 78(1/2):99-106.


Segments of the long arm of human chromosome 21 are conserved, centromere to telomere, in mouse chromosomes 16, 17, and 10. There have been 28 genes identified in human chromosome 21 between TMPRSS2, whose orthologue is the most distal gene mapped to mouse chromosome 16, and PDXK, whose orthologue is the most proximal gene mapped to mouse chromosome 10. Only 6 of these 28 genes have been mapped in mouse, and all are located on chromosome 17. To better define the chromosome 17 segment and the 16 to 17 transition, we used a combination of mouse radiation hybrid panel mapping and physical mapping by mouse: human genomic sequence comparison. We have determined the mouse chromosomal location of an additional 12 genes, predicted the location of 7 more,and defined the endpoints of the mouse chromosome 17 region. The mouse chromosome 16/chromosome 17 evolutionary breakpoint is between human genes ZNF295 and UMODL1, showing there are seven genes in the chromosome 16 segment distal to Tmprss2. The chromosome 17/chromosome 10 breakpoint seems to have involved a duplication of the gene PDXK, which on chromosome 21 lies immediately distal to the KIAA0179 gene. These data suggest that there may be as few as 21 functional genes in the mouse chromosome 17 segment. This information is important for defining existing and constructing more complete mouse models of Down syndrome.