Human immune system development and rejection of human islet allografts in spontaneously diabetic NOD-Rag1null IL2rgammanull Ins2Akita mice.
Animals, Blood-Glucose, CD4-Positive-T-Lymphocytes, CD8-Positive-T-Lymphocytes, Crosses-Genetic, Flow-Cytometry, Humans, Immunity-Innate, Interleukin-Receptor-Common-gamma-Subunit, Islets-of-Langerhans-Transplantation, Mice, Mice-Inbred-BALB-C, Mice-Inbred-NOD, Mice-SCID, Mutation, Transplantation-Heterologous, Transplantation-Homologous
Diabetes 2010 Sep; 59(9):2265-70.
OBJECTIVE: To create an immunodeficient mouse model that spontaneously develops hyperglycemia to serve as a diabetic host for human islets and stem cell-derived beta-cells in the absence or presence of a functional human immune system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We backcrossed the Ins2(Akita) mutation onto the NOD-Rag1(null) IL2rgamma(null) strain and determined 1) the spontaneous development of hyperglycemia, 2) the ability of human islets, mouse islets, and dissociated mouse islet cells to restore euglycemia, 3) the generation of a human immune system following engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells, and 4) the ability of the humanized mice to reject human islet allografts. RESULTS: We confirmed the defects in innate and adaptive immunity and the spontaneous development of hyperglycemia conferred by the IL2rgamma(null), Rag1(null), and Ins2(Akita) genes in NOD-Rag1(null) IL2rgamma(null) Ins2(Akita) (NRG-Akita) mice. Mouse and human islets restored NRG-Akita mice to normoglycemia. Insulin-positive cells in dissociated mouse islets, required to restore euglycemia in chemically diabetic NOD-scid IL2rgamma(null) and spontaneously diabetic NRG-Akita mice, were quantified following transplantation via the intrapancreatic and subrenal routes. Engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells in newborn NRG-Akita and NRG mice resulted in equivalent human immune system development in a normoglycemic or chronically hyperglycemic environment, with >50% of engrafted NRG-Akita mice capable of rejecting human islet allografts. CONCLUSIONS: NRG-Akita mice provide a model system for validation of the function of human islets and human adult stem cell, embryonic stem cell, or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta-cells in the absence or presence of an alloreactive human immune system.
Brehm, M A.; Laning, J; Cuthbert, A; Yang, C; Herlihy, M; Burzenski, L; Gott, B; Foreman, O; Powers, A C.; Greiner, D L.; and Shultz, L D., "Human immune system development and rejection of human islet allografts in spontaneously diabetic NOD-Rag1null IL2rgammanull Ins2Akita mice." (2010). Faculty Research 2010. 86.