The Protein Ontology: a structured representation of protein forms and complexes.

Document Type


Publication Date



Databases-Protein, Escherichia-coli-Proteins, Humans, Mice, Multiprotein-Complexes, Protein-Isoforms, Proteins, User-Computer-Interface, Vocabulary-Controlled

JAX Source

Nucleic Acids Res 2011; 39(Database issue):D539-45.


The Protein Ontology (PRO) provides a formal, logically-based classification of specific protein classes including structured representations of protein isoforms, variants and modified forms. Initially focused on proteins found in human, mouse and Escherichia coli, PRO now includes representations of protein complexes. The PRO Consortium works in concert with the developers of other biomedical ontologies and protein knowledge bases to provide the ability to formally organize and integrate representations of precise protein forms so as to enhance accessibility to results of protein research. PRO ( is part of the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry.