Oral Microbiome in HIV-Infected Women: Shifts in the Abundance of Pathogenic and Beneficial Bacteria Are Associated with Aging, HIV Load, CD4 Count, and Antiretroviral Therapy.

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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Mar; 35(3):276-286






Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nonacquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and dementia are more prevalent in older than in young adult HIV-infected subjects. Although the oral microbiome has been studied as a window into pathogenesis in aging populations, its relationship to HIV disease progression, opportunistic infections, and HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions is not well understood. We utilized 16S rDNA-based pyrosequencing to compare the salivary microbiome in three groups: (1) Chronically HIV-infected women >50 years of age (aging); (2) HIV-infected women <35 years of age (young adult); and (3) HIV-uninfected age-matched women. We also examined correlations between salivary dysbiosis, plasma HIV RNA, CD4+ T cell depletion, and opportunistic oral infections. In both aging and young adult women, HIV infection was associated with salivary dysbiosis characterized by increased abundance of Prevotella melaninogenica and Rothia mucilaginosa. Aging was associated with increased bacterial diversity in both uninfected and HIV-infected women. In HIV-infected women with oral coinfections, aging was also associated with reduced abundance of the common commensal Veillonella parvula. Patients taking antiretroviral therapy showed increased numbers of Neisseria and Haemophilus. High plasma HIV RNA levels correlated positively with the presence of Prevotella and Veillonella, and negatively with the abundance of potentially beneficial Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Circulating CD4+ T cell numbers correlated positively with the abundance of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Our findings extend previous studies of the role of the microbiome in HIV pathogenesis, providing new evidence that HIV infection is associated with a shift toward an increased pathogenic footprint of the salivary microbiome. Taken together, the data suggest a complex relationship, worthy of additional study, between chronic dysbiosis in the oral cavity, aging, viral burden, CD4+ T cell depletion, and long-term antiretroviral therapy.

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