Mol Neurodegener 2019 Jan 22; 14(1):6
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is characterized by the progressive dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells. Recent work in animal models suggests that a critical neuroinflammatory event damages retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve head during ocular hypertensive injury. We previously demonstrated that monocyte-like cells enter the optic nerve head in an ocular hypertensive mouse model of glaucoma (DBA/2 J), but their roles, if any, in mediating axon damage remain unclear.
METHODS: To understand the function of these infiltrating monocyte-like cells, we used RNA-sequencing to profile their transcriptomes. Based on their pro-inflammatory molecular signatures, we hypothesized and confirmed that monocyte-platelet interactions occur in glaucomatous tissue. Furthermore, to test monocyte function we used two approaches to inhibit their entry into the optic nerve head: (1) treatment with DS-SILY, a peptidoglycan that acts as a barrier to platelet adhesion to the vessel wall and to monocytes, and (2) genetic targeting of Itgam (CD11b, an immune cell receptor that enables immune cell extravasation).
RESULTS: Monocyte specific RNA-sequencing identified novel neuroinflammatory pathways early in glaucoma pathogenesis. Targeting these processes pharmacologically (DS-SILY) or genetically (Itgam / CD11b knockout) reduced monocyte entry and provided neuroprotection in DBA/2 J eyes.
CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate a key role of monocyte-like cell extravasation in glaucoma and demonstrate that modulating neuroinflammatory processes can significantly lessen optic nerve injury.
Williams, Pete A.; Braine, Catherine E.; Kizhatil, Krishnakumar; Foxworth, Nicole E; Tolman, Nicholas G; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Scott, Rebecca A; Sousa, Gregory L; Panitch, Alyssa; Howell, Gareth R; and John, Simon W M, "Inhibition of monocyte-like cell extravasation protects from neurodegeneration in DBA/2J glaucoma." (2019). Faculty Research 2019. 30.