Expression of the Neuronal tRNA n-Tr20 Regulates Synaptic Transmission and Seizure Susceptibility.
JGM, JMG, JAXCC
Neuron 2020 Oct 14; 108(1):193-208.e9
The mammalian genome has hundreds of nuclear-encoded tRNAs, but the contribution of individual tRNA genes to cellular and organismal function remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mutations in a neuronally enriched arginine tRNA, n-Tr20, increased seizure threshold and altered synaptic transmission. n-Tr20 expression also modulated seizures caused by an epilepsy-linked mutation in Gabrg2, a gene encoding a GABAA receptor subunit. Loss of n-Tr20 altered translation initiation by activating the integrated stress response and suppressing mTOR signaling, the latter of which may contribute to altered neurotransmission in mutant mice. Deletion of a highly expressed isoleucine tRNA similarly altered these signaling pathways in the brain, suggesting that regulation of translation initiation is a conserved response to tRNA loss. Our data indicate that loss of a single member of a tRNA family results in multiple cellular phenotypes, highlighting the disease-causing potential of tRNA mutations.
Kapur, Mridu; Ganguly, Archan; Nagy, Gabor; Adamson, Scott I; Chuang, Jeffrey; Frankel, Wayne N; and Ackerman, Susan L, "Expression of the Neuronal tRNA n-Tr20 Regulates Synaptic Transmission and Seizure Susceptibility." (2020). Faculty Research 2020. 195.