100 Years of evolving gene-disease complexities and scientific debutants.

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Brief Bioinform 2020 May 21; 21(3):885-905






It's been over 100 years since the word `gene' is around and progressively evolving in several scientific directions. Time-to-time technological advancements have heavily revolutionized the field of genomics, especially when it's about, e.g. triple code development, gene number proposition, genetic mapping, data banks, gene-disease maps, catalogs of human genes and genetic disorders, CRISPR/Cas9, big data and next generation sequencing, etc. In this manuscript, we present the progress of genomics from pea plant genetics to the human genome project and highlight the molecular, technical and computational developments. Studying genome and epigenome led to the fundamentals of development and progression of human diseases, which includes chromosomal, monogenic, multifactorial and mitochondrial diseases. World Health Organization has classified, standardized and maintained all human diseases, when many academic and commercial online systems are sharing information about genes and linking to associated diseases. To efficiently fathom the wealth of this biological data, there is a crucial need to generate appropriate gene annotation repositories and resources. Our focus has been how many gene-disease databases are available worldwide and which sources are authentic, timely updated and recommended for research and clinical purposes. In this manuscript, we have discussed and compared 43 such databases and bioinformatics applications, which enable users to connect, explore and, if possible, download gene-disease data.