Title

Circadian rhythms and the gut microbiome synchronize the host's metabolic response to diet.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

5-4-2021

Publication Title

Cell Metab

Keywords

JGM

JAX Source

Cell Metab 2021 May 4; 33(5):873-887

Volume

33

Issue

5

First Page

873

Last Page

887

ISSN

1932-7420

PMID

33789092

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.015

Grant

DA043809, AG060900

Abstract

The molecular circadian clock and symbiotic host-microbe relationships both evolved as mechanisms that enhance metabolic responses to environmental challenges. The gut microbiome benefits the host by breaking down diet-derived nutrients indigestible by the host and generating microbiota-derived metabolites that support host metabolism. Similarly, cellular circadian clocks optimize organismal physiology to the environment by influencing the timing and coordination of metabolic processes. Host-microbe interactions are influenced by dietary quality and timing, as well as daily light/dark cycles that entrain circadian rhythms in the host. Together, the gut microbiome and the molecular circadian clock play a coordinated role in neural processing, metabolism, adipogenesis, inflammation, and disease initiation and progression. This review examines the bidirectional interactions between the circadian clock, gut microbiota, and host metabolic systems and their effects on obesity and energy homeostasis. Directions for future research and the development of therapies that leverage these systems to address metabolic disease are highlighted.

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