Estrogen regulates the expression of retinoic acid synthesis enzymes and binding proteins in mouse skin.
Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
Nutr Res 2021 Aug 24; 94:10-24
Topical 17-beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the hair cycle, hair shaft differentiation, and sebum production. Vitamin A also regulates sebum production. Vitamin A metabolism proteins localized to the pilosebaceous unit (PSU; hair follicle and sebaceous gland); and were regulated by E2 in other tissues. This study tests the hypothesis that E2 also regulates vitamin A metabolism in the PSU. First, aromatase and estrogen receptors localized to similar sites as retinoid metabolism proteins during mid-anagen. Next, female and male wax stripped C57BL/6J mice were topically treated with E2, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI), letrozole, E2 plus letrozole, or vehicle control (acetone) during mid-anagen. E2 or one of its inhibitors regulated most of the vitamin A metabolism genes and proteins examined in a sex-dependent manner. Most components were higher in females and reduced with ICI in females. ICI reductions occurred in the premedulla, sebaceous gland, and epidermis. Reduced E2 also reduced RA receptors in the sebaceous gland and bulge in females. However, reduced E2 increased the number of retinal dehydrogenase 2 positive hair follicle associated dermal dendritic cells in males. These results suggest that estrogen regulates vitamin A metabolism in the skin. Interactions between E2 and vitamin A have implications in acne treatment, hair loss, and skin immunity.
Everts, Helen B; Silva, Kathleen A; Schmidt, Adriana N; Opalenik, Susan; Duncan, F Jason; King, Lloyd E; Sundberg, John P; and Ong, David E, "Estrogen regulates the expression of retinoic acid synthesis enzymes and binding proteins in mouse skin." (2021). Faculty Research 2021. 211.