Disease Progression in Children with Perinatal HIV Correlates with Increased PD-1+ CD8 T Cells that Coexpress Multiple Immune Checkpoints.
The Journal of infectious diseases
J Infect Dis 2021 Nov 15; 224:1785-95
BACKGROUND: PD-1 marks exhausted T cells, with weak effector functions. Adults living with HIV have increased levels of PD-1+ CD8 T cells that correlate with HIV disease progression, yet little is known about the role of PD-1+ CD8 T cells in children with perinatal HIV.
METHODS: We enrolled 76 Kenyan children with perinatal HIV and 43 children who were HIV unexposed and quantified PD-1 levels on CD8 T cells, their coexpression with immune checkpoints (IC) 2B4, CD160 and TIM3, correlates with immune activation and HIV disease progression and HIV-specific and non-specific proliferative responses.
RESULTS: PD-1+ CD8 T cell frequencies are elevated in children with perinatal HIV and associated with disease progression. The majority of PD-1+ CD8 T cells coexpress additional ICs. ART initiation lowers total PD-1 levels and coexpression of multiple ICs. The frequency of PD-1 + 2B4+CD160+TIM3- in PD-1+ CD8 T cells, predicts weaker HIV-specific proliferative responses, suggesting this subset is functionally exhausted.
CONCLUSION: Children with perinatal HIV have high PD-1+ CD8 T cells that are a heterogeneous population differentially coexpressing multiple ICs. Understanding the complex interplay of ICs is essential to guide the development of PD-1 directed immunotherapies for pediatric HIV remission and cure.
Tailor, Janki; Foldi, Julia; Generoso, Matthew; McCarty, Bret; Alankar, Aparna; Kilberg, Max; Mwamzuka, Mussa; Marshed, Fatma; Ahmed, Aabid; Liu, Mengling; Borkowsky, William; Unutmaz, Derya; and Khaitan, Alka, "Disease Progression in Children with Perinatal HIV Correlates with Increased PD-1+ CD8 T Cells that Coexpress Multiple Immune Checkpoints." (2021). Faculty Research 2021. 302.