Dis Model Mech
JMG, Animals, Ear, Ear Diseases, Humans, Mice, Neural Crest, Phenotype, Phospholipase C beta
Dis Model Mech 2022 Apr 1; 15(4):dmm049320
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2 (ARCND2) is a rare autosomal dominant craniofacial malformation syndrome linked to multiple genetic variants in the coding sequence of phospholipase C β4 (PLCB4). PLCB4 is a direct signaling effector of the endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA)-Gq/11 pathway, which establishes the identity of neural crest cells (NCCs) that form lower jaw and middle ear structures. However, the functional consequences of PLCB4 variants on EDNRA signaling is not known. Here, we show, using multiple signaling reporter assays, that known PLCB4 variants resulting from missense mutations exert a dominant-negative interference over EDNRA signaling. In addition, using CRISPR/Cas9, we find that F0 mouse embryos modeling one PLCB4 variant have facial defects recapitulating those observed in hypomorphic Ednra mouse models, including a bone that we identify as an atavistic change in the posterior palate/oral cavity. Remarkably, we have identified a similar osseous phenotype in a child with ARCND2. Our results identify the disease mechanism of ARCND2, demonstrate that the PLCB4 variants cause craniofacial differences and illustrate how minor changes in signaling within NCCs may have driven evolutionary changes in jaw structure and function. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2 results from the dominant-negative action of PLCB4 variants. Dis Model Mech 2022 Apr 1; 15(4):dmm049320
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.