JMG, COVID-19, Deep Learning, Humans, Inpatients, Pandemics, Radiography
Tomography 2022 Jul 13; 8(4):1791-1803
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic over a relatively brief interval illustrates the need for rapid data-driven approaches to facilitate clinical decision making. We examined a machine learning process to predict inpatient mortality among COVID-19 patients using clinical and chest radiographic data. Modeling was performed with a de-identified dataset of encounters prior to widespread vaccine availability. Non-imaging predictors included demographics, pre-admission clinical history, and past medical history variables. Imaging features were extracted from chest radiographs by applying a deep convolutional neural network with transfer learning. A multi-layer perceptron combining 64 deep learning features from chest radiographs with 98 patient clinical features was trained to predict mortality. The Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) method was used to explain model predictions. Non-imaging data alone predicted mortality with an ROC-AUC of 0.87 ± 0.03 (mean ± SD), while the addition of imaging data improved prediction slightly (ROC-AUC: 0.91 ± 0.02). The application of LIME to the combined imaging and clinical model found HbA1c values to contribute the most to model prediction (17.1 ± 1.7%), while imaging contributed 8.8 ± 2.8%. Age, gender, and BMI contributed 8.7%, 8.2%, and 7.1%, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a viable explainable AI approach to quantify the contributions of imaging and clinical data to COVID mortality predictions.
Mortality Prediction Analysis among COVID-19 Inpatients Using Clinical Variables and Deep Learning Chest Radiography Imaging Features. Tomography 2022 Jul 13; 8(4):1791-1803