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Epigenetics Chromatin


JMG, Animals, Cattle, Dogs, Genome, Genomics, Histones, Horses, Humans, Macaca mulatta, Mammals, Mice, Phylogeny, Swine

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Epigenetics Chromatin. 2022;15(1):34.





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Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. The HGNC (RLS, PD and EAB) is currently funded by Wellcome Trust grant 208349/Z/17/Z and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) grant U24HG003345. DL was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. WM was supported by NIH grant GM-29832-45. MGNC (MM) is funded by program project grant HG000330 from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as part of the MGD project. ARP was supported by the Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen’s University, Canada. ARP is the recipient of a Senior Canada Research Chair in Compu- tational Biology and Biophysics and a Senior Investigator Award from the Ontario Institute of Cancer Research, Canada. HistoneDB 2.0 maintenance (AS and AKG) is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant #18–74-10006. PBT was supported by Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The contents of this paper are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.


Histones have a long history of research in a wide range of species, leaving a legacy of complex nomenclature in the literature. Community-led discussions at the EMBO Workshop on Histone Variants in 2011 resulted in agreement amongst experts on a revised systematic protein nomenclature for histones, which is based on a combination of phylogenetic classification and historical symbol usage. Human and mouse histone gene symbols previously followed a genome-centric system that was not applicable across all vertebrate species and did not reflect the systematic histone protein nomenclature. This prompted a collaboration between histone experts, the Human Genome Organization (HUGO) Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) and Mouse Genomic Nomenclature Committee (MGNC) to revise human and mouse histone gene nomenclature aiming, where possible, to follow the new protein nomenclature whilst conforming to the guidelines for vertebrate gene naming. The updated nomenclature has also been applied to orthologous histone genes in chimpanzee, rhesus macaque, dog, cat, pig, horse and cattle, and can serve as a framework for naming other vertebrate histone genes in the future.


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