High-throughput visual assessment of sleep stages in mice using machine learning.
JGM, JMG, Animals, Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Machine Learning, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Sleep, Sleep Stages, Sleep, REM, Wakefulness
Sleep 2022 Feb 14; 45(2):zsab260
Jackson Laboratory Directors Innovation Fund, DA048634
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep is an important biological process that is perturbed in numerous diseases, and assessment of its substages currently requires implantation of electrodes to carry out electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) analysis. Although accurate, this method comes at a high cost of invasive surgery and experts trained to score EEG/EMG data. Here, we leverage modern computer vision methods to directly classify sleep substages from video data. This bypasses the need for surgery and expert scoring, provides a path to high-throughput studies of sleep in mice.
METHODS: We collected synchronized high-resolution video and EEG/EMG data in 16 male C57BL/6J mice. We extracted features from the video that are time and frequency-based and used the human expert-scored EEG/EMG data to train a visual classifier. We investigated several classifiers and data augmentation methods.
RESULTS: Our visual sleep classifier proved to be highly accurate in classifying wake, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) states, and achieves an overall accuracy of 0.92 ± 0.05 (mean ± SD). We discover and genetically validate video features that correlate with breathing rates, and show low and high variability in NREM and REM sleep, respectively. Finally, we apply our methods to noninvasively detect that sleep stage disturbances induced by amphetamine administration.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that machine learning-based visual classification of sleep is a viable alternative to EEG/EMG based scoring. Our results will enable noninvasive high-throughput sleep studies and will greatly reduce the barrier to screening mutant mice for abnormalities in sleep.
High-throughput visual assessment of sleep stages in mice using machine learning. Sleep 2022 Feb 14; 45(2):zsab260