Cell Death Discov
Cell Death Discov 2022 Apr 16; 8(1):207
Endothelin (EDN, also known as ET) signaling has been suggested to be an important mediator of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in glaucoma. Antagonism of EDN receptors (EDNRA and EDNRB, also known as ET-A and ET-B) prevented RGC death in mouse models of chronic ocular hypertension, and intravitreal injection of EDN ligand was sufficient to drive RGC death. However, it remains unclear which cell types EDN ligands directly affect to elicit RGC death. Multiple cell types in the retina and optic nerve express EDNRA and EDNRB and thus could respond to EDN ligands in the context of glaucoma. Here, we systematically deleted Edn receptors from specific cell types to identify the critical EDN receptor mediating RGC death in vivo. Deletion of both Ednra and Ednrb from retinal neurons (including RGCs) and macroglia did not prevent RGC loss after exposure to EDN1 ligands, suggesting EDN1 ligands cause RGC death via an indirect mechanism involving a secondary cell type. Deletion of Ednra from the full body, and then specifically from vascular mural cells, prevented EDN1-induced vasoconstriction and RGC death. Together, these data suggest EDN ligands cause RGC death via a mechanism initiated by vascular mural cells. It is possible RGC death is a consequence of vascular mural cell-induced vasoconstriction and its pathological sequelae. These results highlight the potential importance of neurovascular dysfunction in glaucoma.
Vascular derived endothelin receptor A controls endothelin-induced retinal ganglion cell death. Cell Death Discov 2022 Apr 16; 8(1):207