Document Type


Publication Date




JAX Source

NPJ Vaccines. 2023;8(1):92.







This research was conducted while JMB was Diamond/American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR) award recipient. This work was in parted funded by NIH grants NCI U01 CA235493 (SL), NIAID R01 AI149746 (SL), NIA P30AG067988 (SL and JMB, the UConn Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center). ANC was supported by a NIAMS/NIH predoctoral fellowship (T32AR079114).


Many human diseases, including metabolic diseases, are intertwined with the immune system. The understanding of how the human immune system interacts with pharmaceutical drugs is still limited, and epidemiological studies only start to emerge. As the metabolomics technology matures, both drug metabolites and biological responses can be measured in the same global profiling data. Therefore, a new opportunity presents itself to study the interactions between pharmaceutical drugs and immune system in the high-resolution mass spectrometry data. We report here a double-blinded pilot study of seasonal influenza vaccination, where half of the participants received daily metformin administration. Global metabolomics was measured in the plasma samples at six timepoints. Metformin signatures were successfully identified in the metabolomics data. Statistically significant metabolite features were found both for the vaccination effect and for the drug-vaccine interactions. This study demonstrates the concept of using metabolomics to investigate drug interaction with the immune response in human samples directly at molecular levels.


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