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JJP, Humans, Animals, Mice, Zygote, Electroporation, Electroporation Therapies, Genetic Background, Mice, Knockout, Mammals







This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology [19H03142 to S.M. and A.K.]; a Research Support Project for Life Science and Drug Discovery [Basis for Supporting Innovative Drug Discovery and Life Science Research (BINDS)] of the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development [JP22ama121047 to S.M. and A.K.]; and the Japan Science and Technology Agency [JPMJPF2017 to A.Y.]. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or manuscript preparation.


Genetically engineered mouse models are essential tools for understanding mammalian gene functions and disease pathogenesis. Genome editing allows the generation of these models in multiple inbred strains of mice without backcrossing. Zygote electroporation dramatically removed the barrier for introducing the CRISPR-Cas9 complex in terms of cost and labour. Here, we demonstrate that the generalised zygote electroporation method is also effective for generating knockout mice in multiple inbred strains. By combining in vitro fertilisation and electroporation, we obtained founders for knockout alleles in eight common inbred strains. Long-read sequencing analysis detected not only intended mutant alleles but also differences in read frequency of intended and unintended alleles among strains. Successful germline transmission of knockout alleles demonstrated that our approach can establish mutant mice targeting the same locus in multiple inbred strains for phenotyping analysis, contributing to reverse genetics and human disease research.


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