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JMG, Rats, Animals, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Sodium Chloride, Dietary, Sodium Chloride, Blood Pressure, Kidney, RNA, Messenger

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Function (Oxf). 2023;4(5):zqad031







This study was supported by grants for scientific research (NIH P01 HL116264, HL149620, R01 HL151587, AHA 23POST1008714). Mass Spectrometry analysis utilized instrumentation obtained through NIH S10 award (S10 OD026816).


In this study, novel methods were developed, which allowed continuous (24/7) measurement of arterial blood pressure and renal blood flow in freely moving rats and the intermittent collection of arterial and renal venous blood to estimate kidney metabolic fluxes of O2 and metabolites. Specifically, the study determined the effects of a high salt (HS; 4.0% NaCl) diet upon whole kidney O2 consumption and arterial and renal venous plasma metabolomic profiles of normal Sprague–Dawley rats. A separate group of rats was studied to determine changes in the cortex and outer medulla tissue metabolomic and mRNAseq profiles before and following the switch from a 0.4% to 4.0% NaCl diet. In addition, targeted mRNA expression analysis of cortical segments was performed. Significant changes in the metabolomic and transcriptomic profiles occurred with feeding of the HS diet. A progressive increase of kidney O2 consumption was found despite a reduction in expression of most of the mRNA encoding enzymes of TCA cycle. A novel finding was the increased expression of glycolysis-related genes in Cx and isolated proximal tubular segments in response to an HS diet, consistent with increased release of pyruvate and lactate from the kidney to the renal venous blood. Data suggests that aerobic glycolysis (eg, Warburg effect) may contribute to energy production under these circumstances. The study provides evidence that kidney metabolism responds to an HS diet enabling enhanced energy production while protecting from oxidative stress and injury. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high salt diet.


⃝C The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Physiological Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution,

and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.