Title

Phenotyping mice with skin, hair, or nail abnormalities: A systematic approach and methodologies from simple to complex.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

11-1-2023

Keywords

JMG, SS1, Animals, Mice, Hair, Hair Follicle, Nails, Malformed, Rodent Diseases, Skin

ISSN

1544-2217

PMID

37191004

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1177/03009858231170329

Grant

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture (National Institute of Food and Agriculture)/University of California Agricultural Experiment Station project CA-D-ETX-2152-H and MorphoPHEN ERASMUS-EDU-2022-PEX-EMJM-MOB-101082155.

Abstract

The skin and adnexa can be difficult to interpret because they change dramatically with the hair cycle throughout life. However, a variety of methods are commonly available to collect skin and perform assays that can be useful for figuring out morphological and molecular changes. This overview provides information on basic approaches to evaluate skin and its molecular phenotype, with references for more detail, and interpretation of results on the skin and adnexa in the mouse. These approaches range from mouse genetic nomenclature, setting up a cutaneous phenotyping study, skin grafts, hair follicle reconstitution, wax stripping, electron microscopy, and Köbner reaction to very specific approaches such as lipid and protein analyses on a large scale.

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