Combination Organelle Mitochondrial Endoplasmic Reticulum Therapy (COMET) for Multidrug Resistant Breast Cancer.

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JMG, Animals, Cattle, Humans, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms, Tunicamycin, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Paclitaxel, Mitochondria, Apoptosis, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Peptides, Drug Combinations, Cell Line, Tumor

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J Control Release. 2023;363:435-51.








It is time for the story of mitochondria and intracellular communication in multidrug resistant cancer to be rewritten. Herein we characterize the extent and cellular advantages of mitochondrial network fusion in multidrug resistant (MDR) breast cancer and have designed a novel nanomedicine that disrupts mitochondrial network fusion and systematically manipulates organelle fusion and function. Combination Organelle Mitochondrial Endoplasmic reticulum Therapy (COMET) is an innovative translational nanomedicine for treating MDR triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that has superior safety and equivalent efficacy to the current standard of care (paclitaxel). Our study has demonstrated that the increased mitochondrial networks in MDR TNBC contribute to apoptotic resistance and network fusion is mediated by mitofusin2 (MFN2) on the outer mitochondrial membrane. COMET consists of three components; Mitochondrial Network Disrupting (MiND) nanoparticles (NPs) that are loaded with an anti-MFN2 peptide, tunicamycin, and Bam7. The therapeutic rationale of COMET is to reduce the apoptotic threshold in MDR cells with MiND NPs, followed by inducing the endoplasmic reticulum mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) by stressing MDR cells with tunicamycin, and finally, directly inducing mitochondrial apoptosis with Bam7 which is a specific bcl-2 Bax activator. MiND NPs are PEGylated liposomes with the 21 amino acid (2577.98 MW) anti-MFN2 peptide compartmentalized in the aqueous core. Hypoxia (0.5% oxygen) was used to create MDR derivatives of MDA-MB-231 cells and BT-549 cells. Mitochondrial networks were quantified using 3D analysis of 60× live cell images acquired with a Keyence BZ-X710 microscope and MiND NPs effectively fragmented mitochondrial networks in drug sensitive and MDR TNBC cells. The IC

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