Mouse Models for Cancer Immunotherapy Research.
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer therapy, largely attributed to the success of immune-checkpoint blockade. However, there are subsets of patients across multiple cancers who have not shown robust responses to these agents. A major impediment to progress in the field is the availability of faithful mouse models that recapitulate the complexity of human malignancy and immune contexture within the tumor microenvironment. These models are urgently needed across all malignancies to interrogate and predict antitumor immune responses and therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. Herein, we seek to review pros and cons of different cancer mouse models, and how they can be used as platforms to predict efficacy and resistance to cancer immunotherapies.