Title

Nitrosative stress and lipid homeostasis as a mechanism for zileuton hepatotoxicity and resistance in genetically sensitive mice.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

3-14-2020

Keywords

JMG

JAX Source

Toxic Sci 2020 Mar 14 [epub ahead of print]

PMID

32170957

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa037

Abstract

Zileuton is an orally active inhibitor of leukotriene synthesis for maintenance treatment of asthma, for which clinical usage has been associated with idiosyncratic liver injury. Mechanistic understanding of zileuton toxicity is hampered by the rarity of the cases and lack of an animal model. A promising model for mechanistic study of rare liver injury is the Diversity Outbred (J:DO) mouse population, with genetic variation similar to that found in humans. In this study, female DO mice were administered zileuton or vehicle i.g. daily for seven days. Serum liver enzymes were elevated in the zileuton group, with marked interindividual variability in response. Zileuton treatment-induced findings in susceptible DO mice included microvesicular fatty change, hepatocellular mitosis, and hepatocellular necrosis. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine abundance were increased in livers of animals with necrosis and those with fatty change, implicating nitrosative stress as a possible injury mechanism. Conversely, DO mice lacking adverse liver pathology following zileuton exposure experienced decreased hepatic concentrations of resistin and increased concentrations of insulin and leptin, providing potential clues into mechanisms of toxicity resistance. Transcriptome pathway analysis highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction and altered fatty acid oxidation as key molecular perturbations associated with zileuton exposure, and suggested that interindividual differences in cytochrome P450 metabolism, glutathione-mediated detoxification, and FXR signaling may contribute to zileuton-induced liver injury. Taken together, DO mice provided a platform for investigating mechanisms of toxicity and resistance in context of zileuton-induced liver injury which may lead to targeted therapeutic interventions.

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