3D-GNOME 2.0: a three-dimensional genome modeling engine for predicting structural variation-driven alterations of chromatin spatial structure in the human genome.

Michal Wlasnowolski
Michal Sadowski
Tymon Czarnota
Karolina Jodkowska
Przemyslaw Szalaj
Zhonghui Tang, The Jackson Laboratory
Yijun Ruan, The Jackson Laboratory
Dariusz Plewczynski

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Structural variants (SVs) that alter DNA sequence emerge as a driving force involved in the reorganisation of DNA spatial folding, thus affecting gene transcription. In this work, we describe an improved version of our integrated web service for structural modeling of three-dimensional genome (3D-GNOME), which now incorporates all types of SVs to model changes to the reference 3D conformation of chromatin. In 3D-GNOME 2.0, the default reference 3D genome structure is generated using ChIA-PET data from the GM12878 cell line and SVs data are sourced from the population-scale catalogue of SVs identified by the 1000 Genomes Consortium. However, users may also submit their own structural data to set a customized reference genome structure, and/or a custom input list of SVs. 3D-GNOME 2.0 provides novel tools to inspect, visualize and compare 3D models for regions that differ in terms of their linear genomic sequence. Contact diagrams are displayed to compare the reference 3D structure with the one altered by SVs. In our opinion, 3D-GNOME 2.0 is a unique online tool for modeling and analyzing conformational changes to the human genome induced by SVs across populations. It can be freely accessed at https://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/.