Improved mouse models and advanced genetic and genomic technologies for the study of neutrophils.
We thank Stephen B. Sampson for critical reading of the manuscript, and Zoe¨ Reifsnyder for help with graphics.
Mice have been excellent surrogates for studying neutrophil biology and, furthermore, murine models of human disease have provided fundamental insights into the roles of human neutrophils in innate immunity. The emergence of novel humanized mice and high-diversity mouse populations offers the research community innovative and powerful platforms for better understanding, respectively, the mechanisms by which human neutrophils drive pathogenicity, and how genetic differences underpin the variation in neutrophil biology observed among humans. Here, we review key examples of these new resources. Additionally, we provide an overview of advanced genetic engineering tools available to further improve such murine model systems, of sophisticated neutrophil-profiling technologies, and of multifunctional nanoparticle (NP)-based neutrophil-targeting strategies.