Inactive rhomboid proteins RHBDF1 and RHBDF2 (iRhoms): a decade of research in murine models.
Rhomboid proteases, first discovered in Drosophila, are intramembrane serine proteases. Members of the rhomboid protein family that are catalytically deficient are known as inactive rhomboids (iRhoms). iRhoms have been implicated in wound healing, cancer, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, inflammation, and skin diseases. The past decade of mouse research has shed new light on two key protein domains of iRhoms-the cytosolic N-terminal domain and the transmembrane dormant peptidase domain-suggesting new ways to target multiple intracellular signaling pathways. This review focuses on recent advances in uncovering the unique functions of iRhom protein domains in normal growth and development, growth factor signaling, and inflammation, with a perspective on future therapeutic opportunities.