Continuous Glucose Monitoring in female NOD Mice Reveals Daily Rhythms and a Negative Correlation with Body Temperature.
Previous studies with continuous glucose monitoring in mice have been limited to several days or weeks, with the mouse's physical attachment to the equipment impacting behavior and measurements. In the current study we measured blood glucose and body temperature at 10-second intervals for 12 weeks in a cohort of NOD/ShiLtJ female mice using wireless telemetry. This allowed us, for the first time, to obtain a high-resolution profile of the circadian rhythm of these two parameters and the onset of hyperglycemic development in real time. The most striking observations were the nocturnal concentrations of glucose were elevated into the diabetic range days prior to elevations in diurnal glucose (when glucose concentrations are historically measured), and the strong, negative correlation between elevated blood glucose concentrations and body temperature with a steady decline of the body temperature with diabetes development. Taken together this new technological advancement provides improved resolution in the study of diabetes disease trajectory in mouse models including relevant translatability to the current technologies of continuous glucose monitoring now regularly employed in patients.