Small bowel resection induces long-term changes in the enteric microbiota of mice.

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J Gastrointest Surg 2015 Jan; 19(1):56-64.





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PURPOSE: The enteric microbiome is known to play a major role in healthy gut homeostasis and several disease states. It may also contribute to both the intestinal recovery and complications that occur in patients with short bowel syndrome. The extent and nature of alterations to the gut microbiota following intestinal resection, however, are not well studied in a controlled setting. The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the effects of massive small bowel resection on the murine enteric microflora.

METHODS: Wild-type C57BL6 mice, following a week of acclamation to a liquid rodent diet, underwent either 50 % proximal small bowel resection (SBR) or a sham operation. Mice were sacrificed, and enteric contents from the small bowel, cecum, and stool were harvested at 7 and 90 days post-operatively. DNA was isolated, and the V3-V5 regions of the 16s rRNA gene amplified and pyrosequenced on a Roche 454 platform. Sequences were clustered into operation taxonomic units and classified. Communities were then analyzed for diversity and phylogenic composition.

RESULTS: In the long-term group, the microbes inhabiting the ileum of mice undergoing SBR and sham operation differed significantly at the genus level (p < 0.001). Small bowel contents collected before and after SBR also differed significantly (p = 0.006). This was driven by an increase in Lactobacillus and decrease in Enterobacteriaceae species in mice undergoing SBR. No difference was seen in the long-term stool or in stool, cecal, or ileal contents in the short-term. No difference in microbial community diversity was found in any group.

CONCLUSION: Bowel resection induces long-term changes in the microbial community of the murine ileum, but not at more distal sites of the gastrointestinal tract. The increase in Lactobacillus encountered small bowel of resected mice correlates with limited previous studies. These changes may reflect an adaptive response of the microbiota to maximize energy extraction, but further studies are needed to establish the role played by this altered community.

J Gastrointest Surg 2015 Jan; 19(1):56-64.

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