Title

Serial immunological parameters in a phase II trial of exemestane and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in advanced hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2-1-2018

JAX Location

Reprint Collection

JAX Source

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 Feb; 168(1):57-67.

PMID

29124456

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4570-4

Grant

CA016087

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Resistance to endocrine therapies in hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a significant challenge. Prior studies have shown that low-dose oral cyclophosphamide can transiently deplete regulatory T cells (Tregs) and improve anti-tumor immunity. We investigated the combination of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced HR-positive breast cancer and assessed changes in circulating immune cell subsets.

METHODS: This was a single-arm phase II trial of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01963481). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 months (RECIST 1.1). Secondary objectives included median PFS, objective response rate, duration of response, and safety. Circulating Tregs (FOXP3

RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were enrolled. Treatment was well tolerated, without grade 4/5 toxicities. Objective responses were seen in 6/23 patients (26.1%; 95% CI 10.2-48.4%) and were durable (median 11.6 months). Three-month PFS rate was 50.1% (95% CI 33.0-76.0%); median PFS was 4.23 months (95% CI 2.8-11.7). No treatment-related decrease in Tregs was observed. However, elevated baseline levels of Naïve Tregs [greater than 2.5 (the median of the naïve Tregs)] were associated with relative risk of disease progression or death [hazard ratio 11.46 (95% CI 2.32-56.5)]. In addition, the baseline levels of Naïve Tregs (adj-p = 0.04), Memory Tregs (adj-p = 0.003), CD4 + Central Memory T cells (adj-p = 0.0004), PD-1 + CD4 + Central Memory T cells (adj-p = 0.008), and PD-1 + CD4 + Effector Memory T cells (adj-p = 0.009) were significantly greater in the patients than in the healthy controls; the baseline levels of %CD4 + Naïve T cells (adj-p = 0.0004) were significantly lower in patients compared with healthy controls (n = 40).

CONCLUSION: Treg depletion was not observed with low-dose cyclophosphamide when assessed by the specific marker FOXP3 + Helios +; however, baseline naïve Tregs were associated with 3-month PFS. Exemestane/cyclophosphamide combination had favorable safety profile with evidence of clinical activity in heavily pretreated patients.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 Feb; 168(1):57-67.

Please contact the Joan Staats Library for information regarding this document.

Share

COinS