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JGM, JMG, Animals, Humans, Mice, Alzheimer Disease, Apolipoprotein E4, Brain, DNA, Recombinant, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Microglia, Neurons, Receptors, Immunologic

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BMC Genomics. 2023;24(1):172.







This work was supported by the National Institute of Health grant U54AG054345.


BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the leading cause of age-related dementia, has revealed transcripts, proteins, and pathway alterations associated with disease. Assessing these postmortem signatures of LOAD in experimental model systems can further elucidate their relevance to disease origins and progression. Model organisms engineered with human genetic factors further link these signatures to disease-associated variants, especially when studies are designed to leverage homology across species. Here we assess differential gene splicing patterns in aging mouse models carrying humanized APOE4 and/or the Trem2*R47H variant on a C57BL/6J background. We performed a differential expression of gene (DEG) and differential splicing analyses on whole brain transcriptomes at multiple ages. To better understand the difference between differentially expressed and differentially spliced genes, we evaluated enrichment of KEGG pathways and cell-type specific gene signatures of the adult brain from each alteration type. To determine LOAD relevance, we compared differential splicing results from mouse models with multiple human AD splicing studies.

RESULTS: We found that differentially expressed genes in Trem2*R47H mice were significantly enriched in multiple AD-related pathways, including immune response, osteoclast differentiation, and metabolism, whereas differentially spliced genes were enriched for neuronal related functions, including GABAergic synapse and glutamatergic synapse. These results were reinforced by the enrichment of microglial genes in DEGs and neuronal genes in differentially spliced genes in Trem2*R47H mice. We observed significant overlap between differentially spliced genes in Trem2*R47H mice and brains from human AD subjects. These effects were absent in APOE4 mice and suppressed in APOE4.Trem2*R47H double mutant mice relative to Trem2*R47H mice.

CONCLUSIONS: The cross-species observation that alternative splicing observed in LOAD are present in Trem2*R47H mouse models suggests a novel link between this candidate risk gene and molecular signatures of LOAD in neurons and demonstrates how deep molecular analysis of new genetic models links molecular disease outcomes to a human candidate gene.


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