Biotransformation of Organophosphate Esters by Rice and Rhizosphere Microbiome: Multiple Metabolic Pathways, Mechanism, and Toxicity Assessment.

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Oryza, Rhizosphere, Esters, Flame Retardants, Organophosphates, Biotransformation, Phosphates, Microbiota, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Environmental Monitoring, China

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Environ Sci Technol. 2023;57(4):1776-87.







This work was jointly supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1800704), National Natural Science Foundations of China (22076031, 42107298, 42107240), GuangDong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2022A1515011099, 2021A1515010366), and the key lab of pollution control and ecosystem restoration in industry clusters, ministry of education.


The biotransformation behavior and toxicity of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in rice and rhizosphere microbiomes were comprehensively studied by hydroponic experiments. OPEs with lower hydrophobicity were liable to be translocated acropetally, and rhizosphere microbiome could reduce the uptake and translocation of OPEs in rice tissues. New metabolites were successfully identified in rice and rhizosphere microbiome, including hydrolysis, hydroxylated, methylated, and glutathione-, glucuronide-, and sulfate-conjugated products. Rhizobacteria and plants could cooperate to form a complex ecological interaction web for OPE elimination. Furthermore, active members of the rhizosphere microbiome during OPE degradation were revealed and the metagenomic analysis indicated that most of these active populations contained OPE-degrading genes. The results of metabolomics analyses for phytotoxicity assessment implied that several key function metabolic pathways of the rice plant were found perturbed by metabolites, such as diphenyl phosphate and monophenyl phosphate. In addition, the involved metabolism mechanisms, such as the carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and synthesis, and nucleotide metabolism in