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JGM, Humans, Tritolyl Phosphates, Oryza, Organophosphates, Microbiota, Flame Retardants, Phosphates

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Environ Int. 2023;172:107793.







This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (22076031, 42107298, 42107240), GuangDong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2022A1515011099, 2021A1515010366), and the key lab of pollution control and ecosystem restoration in industry clusters, ministry of education.


Tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is extensively used organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers that posed risks to organisms and human beings. In this study, the translocation and biotransformation behavior of isomers tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP), tri-m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP), and tri-o-cresyl phosphate (ToCP) in rice and rhizosphere microbiome was explored by hydroponic exposure. TpCP and TmCP were found more liable to be translocated acropetally, compared with ToCP, although they have same molecular weight and similar Kow. Rhizosphere microbiome named microbial consortium GY could reduce the uptake of TpCP, TmCP, and ToCP in rice tissues, and promote rice growth. New metabolites were successfully identified in rice and microbiome, including hydrolysis, hydroxylated, methylated, demethylated, methoxylated, and glucuronide- products. The methylation, demethylation, methoxylation, and glycosylation pathways of TCP isomers were observed for the first time in organisms. What is more important is that the demethylation of TCPs could be an important and overlooked source of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which broke the traditional understanding of the only man- made source of toxic TPHP in the environment. Active members of the microbial consortium GY during degradation were revealed and metagenomic analysis indicated that most of active populations contained TCP- degrading genes. It is noteworthy that the strains and function genes in microbial consortium GY that responsible for TCP isomers’ transformation were different. These results can improve our understanding of the translocation and transformation of organic pollutant isomers in plants and rhizosphere microbiome.


This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( nc-nd/4.0/).